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28.10.1918 - Origins of Czechoslovakia

28.10.1918 - Origins of Czechoslovakia

The formation of Czechoslovakia was a process that led to the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state. Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918. Its borders were defined by peace treaties and the resulting decisions within the Versailles peace system.

 První Československá republika do 1928

On October 28, 1918, a delegation of the National Committee led by Karel Kramář started negotiations with the representative of the anti-Austrian foreign resistance Edvard Beneš in Geneva about the creation and form of an independent Czechoslovak state. Among other things, they reached an agreement that the new state would be a republic (monarchy was also considered), Masaryk would become president, Kramář would be prime minister.[8] On the same day, around 9:00 a.m., Antonín Švehla and František Soukup set out on behalf of the National Committee to take over the War Grain Institute in Prague in order to prevent grain from being taken to the front, and had the employees of the institute swear allegiance to the newly emerging state. Then the news spread about the recognition of Austria's terms of peace - Hungary.

The terms also included recognition of the autonomy of the nations of Austria-Hungary, which the people interpreted as recognition of independence. This news became the impetus for spontaneous demonstrations, during which the people cheered in the streets and destroyed the symbols of Austria-Hungary. On Wenceslas Square near the monument of St. Wenceslas, the priest Isidor Zahradník spoke to the crowds and proclaimed an independent Czechoslovakian state.


On the evening of October 28, the National Committee issued the first law, the Act on the Establishment of an Independent Czechoslovak State, and then the proclamation of the National Committee "Czechoslovak People. Your age-old dream has come true..." Both documents were signed by Antonín Švehla, Alois Rašín, Jiří Stříbrný, Vavro Šrobár and František Soukup - later called "Men of October 28". On the same day, 4 representatives were added to the National Committee, representatives of Germans and Hungarians were not invited.

28. říjen 1918